Hochschule Luzern - Musik, Abteilung Jazz

Picking Notes out of Thin Air?

3. Collective Aspects of Improvisation:

Give and Take: The Collective Conversation and Musical Journey

Usually, everyone takes their cues from the soloist, but anyone could initiate something and we would all follow suit. Buster Williams may play something and I'll say, "Oh, yeah?" and try to follow him because it makes the group sound more cohesive. It's a matter of give and take. Kenny Barron

Striking a Groove

When you get into that groove. you ride right on down that groove with no strain and no pain - you can't lay back or go forward. That's why they call it a groove. It's where the beat is, and we're always trying to find that. Charli Persip

I don't care what kind of style a group plays as long they settle into a groove where the the rhythm keeps building instead of changing around. It's like the way an African hits the drum. He hits it in a certain way, and after a period of time, you feel it more than you did when he first started. He's playing the same thing, but the quality is different - it's settled into a groove. It's like seating tobacco in a pipe. You put some heat on it and make it expand. After a while, it's there. It's tight. Lou Donaldson

For things to happen beautifully in the ensemble, the drummer and the bass player must be married. When I listen to the drummer and the bass player together, I like to hear wedding bells. Charli Persip

You play every beat in complete rhythmic unison with the drummer, thousands upon thousands of notes together, night after night. If it's working, it brings you very close. It's a kind of emotional empathy that you develop very quickly. The relationship is very intimate. Chuck Israels

The drummer has such a percussive sound because the beat is carried on the ride cymbal; a wood or Teflon drum stick hitting the metal cymbal makes such a definite sound when it articulates the beginning of each beat. As a bass player, you add your somewhat less defined and fatter bass sound to fill up the space in between those cymbal beats. It feels good when you feel you're right between those beats. If you feel like your sound is leaking out the front or back of them, you feel a whole lot less comfortable. Chuck Israels

There's an edge I feel when I'm playing walking bass lines on top of the beat. It's like you are walking into the wind. You feel a certain resistance when your body is straight, but you feel a greater resistance if you lean into the wind. Buster Williams

If you play really ahead of the beat, when you're pushing everybody and telling them where to go, you're carrying a big responsability as to the direction of a solo, whereas if you just sit on the beat or on the back of the beat a little bit, you can just kind of cruise and add periods and commas to their statements. Paul Wertico

The Rhythm Section's Improvisation within the Groove

You can play in a way that either states the time or implies it. My preference is to have someone state the time when others aren't, so that what the others are doing works against the time. Then you have polytime, and it becomes much more exciting, much more creative. Walter Bishop Jr.

The bass player is the key. He needs to keep a steady pulse, to provide the bottom and to hold the music together. This frees the drummer up to play. But when the bass players gets free, the drummer has to be restricted somewhat. It's just a trade-off. Wynton Marsalis

Last year when I heard Richard Davis, I was knocked out by the creative energy and natural flow to his bass playing. something was always happening. Rhythmically, he'd walk for a while. The he'd stop and start playing a broken tempo for a while. Then, maybe, he'd switch to a little bit of arco. It was very refreshing and very stimulating. Calvin Hill

Playing with musicians is like a conversation. If when I speak, you say, "Yes" or you look at me and blink your eyes or interject some comment of your own, that keeps me going. Just listen to Roy Haynes! To say that he's a great rhythmic contrapuntal conversationist doesn't do justice to what he does. What he does is just magic. Chuck Israels

The drummer has become a very, very important partner for me as my playing has evolved. At one point, I started really listening to the things the drummer would play, and I'd play the same things rhythmically. Kenny Barron

When you just lock up and play rhythmic things together that are not planned, it sounds like you actually rehearsed it all, and it makes a rhythm section sound cohesive. One small example might be to anticipate the "and" of a phrase together with a drummer. Many drummers anticipate the first beat of a measure by playing two eighth notes, accenting the "and of four" and the "and of one" of the next measure. When I do those kinds of things togehter with the drummer, many are surprised and go, "Oh, yeah?" But I can only do that because I listen to drummers so much. The figures we play together are most likely to occur at the end of phrases, like four or eight-bar phrases. That helps to define the form of the tune. Kenny Barron

Buster Williams, or whoever the bass player is, may play a different bass note than I expect to play or play a chord substitution. I have to be able to hear that and, at the same time, hear whatever rhythmic pattern is played by the drummer. If the bass player changes the whole chord, then I have to be aware enough of where he's going to go with him, or I may change the chord, and he has to be cool enough to hear where I'm going. Kenny Barron

When I'm listening to the other musicians and thinking about the form of a piece, there a little things that arise which I have to negotiate. Suppose I'm coming to a bar in the piece in which I would normally play four notes. the chord progression at that point dictates to me that, in order to keep the four-beat quarter-note rhythm going, I can either play four roots of the chords or I could play two roots and passing notes in between them. But suppose, just before I get to that bar, the drummer plays a pettern that suggests a quarter-note triplet feeling and I would like to latch onto that rhythmic feeling and play the pattern with him. That creates an instant problem, because I had intended to play four notes on the measure and now I need six notes for the two triplets. Where do you find them? Sometimes, you can find them chromatically between the main chord tones or in a chromatic approach from either below or above the chord tomes. Sometimes, you find them in an extra secondary dominant chord or in a pattern of thirds. Those are the tricky little problems that arise when you play with other musicians. Chuck Israels

Years ago you let the rhythm section start playing by themselves at the beginning of the evening. If they were having any trouble, you just let them play to get the kinks out. After they'd got the feeling for one another and got themselves together, the the horns joined them. Jimmy Robinson

Soloists and Rhythm Section Players

The role of the drum in Betty Carter's group was not just a time-keeping device. It was to accent what she was singing. She scatted and phrased the wods of the songs with such finesse and style, with such rhythmic pull, that it was like the drum and her voice were one thing. Betty was very rhythmic, and she loved to play with the drummer with her voice. she used scat syllables to sing the same type of things I could play with my left hand on the drums. She'd sing along with what I was playing or improvise on top of it, and that would be like magic for the audience. We were still calling her "Betty Bebop" at that time, because she could sing the same rudiments with her voice that you could play on the drums. Ronald Shannon Jackson

The piano player might just independently do something as part of the rhythm section that is attention-getting, something he's just directing at me. If I hear the piano player play a figure, I'll stop for a moment and then react to that. I'll do something as a result of what he did. Or maybe the piano player does something that is a reaction to something I've just played. That's a surefire way of getting my attention. Lee Konitz

When you change the harmony a little in your solo and pianists hear it, then they should echo you a bit or play a chord voicing in such a way that it will complement what you've just played and spur you on to something else. Joanne Brackeen is one of my favorite pianists to play with. She doesn't use a lot of space, but she really listens well. She always plays things that go with the things that you play. When I play with her, I'm rarely conscious that she's there, except that everything sounds real good. We're just in the flow of it together. John NcNeil

Pianists can be the best musicians in the group. Sometimes, they know far more than anybody else in the band, and they can play things in many different ways. Fred Hersch is a good example. He's very well trained and knows a lot of things. If I say,"Well, this piece calls for this, Fred," then he can do it. He gives each piece the respect it should have. The thing that really makes the music sound good is the way the pianists voice their chords. Some people leave you space and give you some freedom at the same time they're leading you in a certain way. I'll listen to how the pianist voices a chord, and I'll get an idea of what note would go well with it. I'll get an idea of what starting note to use for my solo. Art Farmer

Pianists don't have to put every note that is in the chord. To find the best possible choice is the thing: four notes can sound like a thousand if they're the right ones. Wynton Marsalis

I want to relate to the bass player and the piano player and the drummer, so that I know at any given moment what they are all doing. The goal is always to relate as fully as possible to every sound that everyone is making. But whew! It's very difficult for me to achieve. At different points, I will listen to any particular member of the group and relate to them as directly as possible in my solo. Lee Konitz

Interpreting Ideas

Sonny Rollins doesn't need very much in the way of you chording for him, because he covers the whole thing in his solos; he plays the chords and the rhythmic part. Miles plays with a lot of spaces, so that leaves more room for the rhythm section to play fills and to do things as a whole. Tommy Flanagan

George Coleman is a person who plays a lot of notes, a lot of rhythm and everything, so actually, all you have to do is to give him a cushoin and just let him go. He'll play right over the top of what you're laying down, so you lay something down that's pretty simple and you keep it straight. It could be a walking line or something else whith that feeling. But when you're playing with somebody like Pharoah Sanders who doesn't play as much, you can play a litle bit more out front, a little more complex and with more activity, because he uses the rhythm section more than somebody like George Coleman. Calvin Hill

In Miles Davis' band, Philly Joe Jones even learned to play little things to set Miles up for his phrases. He'd play things before and after Miles' figures. Little things that let you know the drummer is listening. Curtis Fuller

I do different things with each drummer based on what each one does. Playing with Ben Riley is playing one way. Playing with Elvin Jones is quite another. Also, Billy Hart does little rhythmic things with his sock cymbal that are different from both Ben and Elvin. Ben and I have been working together for a long time now, and it's almost intuitive between us. Elvin's playing is, in a sense, freer and looser than Ben's playing, so there might not be a chance to do those rhythmic things together in the same way than Ben and I do them. I've only played once or twice with Elvin, so I'd have to listen to him and find out where he places his figures rhythmically - the things he does that he's always going to do. There is something in his playing somewhere that is constant. If we worked long enough together, I would find that thing and key in on it. Kenny Barron

Sam Jones is a great bass player, but he's fairly conservative. On waltzes he'll play just one note in the beginning of each bar; on a ballad, he'll end up double timing it usually. If he's playing a walking bass line behind you, the only thing he might do in reaction to what you've played is to introduce a substitute chord change, taking a slightly different harmonic route through the piece. Fred Hersch

Mike Richmond is a bass player who can play passages in which he'a almost not keeping time, but he's playing around the time. Because I know the way Mike plays and can feel what he's playing, I can follow him during those passages. I can play around the time and play off of his improvisation, and when we return to the form of the piece, we come out in the same place at the same time. He's just one of those cats who's got a beautiful gift for melodic playing, as well as the ability to play with the time rhythmically. When he breaks up the time in different ways, it doesn't make me feel hta least bit uncomfortable. Keith Copeland

...to have an idea what he (Richard Davis) might play from one note to the next. If he plays a C at a certain strength, then I know he maybe looking for an Aflat or an Eflat or whatever direction he might go in. And I know he may be making a certain kind of passage. I've heard him enough to know how he makes his lines. So I may not know exactly what note he's going to play, but I know in general the kind of statement he would make, or how he would use his words, you know, the order he would put his words in....We train ourselves over a period of years to be able to hear rhythms and anticipate combination of sounds before they actually happen. Roland Hanna

The give-and-take is ideal, so that of you go down a second, all you have to do is to keep quiet and let someone else play for a second. In that way, the music continues to grow. Lee Konitz

When I'm playing with Art Farmer, it's the same kind of thing. Art is very spontaneous. He listens to what you play behind him, and you really play with him. When he plays something that I know I can feel from him, that means for me to do something. For example, when he'll go up to a high note and shake it, that means, "Okay. Come on up there with me." Or, when he will choose a series of very remote pitches in a line, that means, "Lay out." It doesn't mean, "Try to find me." It means, "I'm trying to lose you, so just let me play without you for a while." Fred Hersch

Knowing when to play inside and when you play outside in Freddie Hubbard's band was really just based on listening to the solos more than anything else. You followed the soloist wherever he wanted to take the music, and many times he wanted to take it out. This was primarily signaled by the soloist's choice of notes and by his line. You could hear it if he started playing tonally and then suddenly he was doing something else with his line. That was a signal for you to follow suit with your accompaniment. Kenny Barron

The amazing thing about playing with Art Blakey, is that he has a way of tuning into inspiration that can draw an emotion out of you that you may have never experienced before. Terence Blanchard

Sam Jones's feeling is simply unbelievable. It's a down home type of feeling. That's why we call him "Homes". Sam play just like he is - a beautiful, easygoing cat who puts on no airs. If you listen to some of the early recordings he made with Cannonball, there is such a great, great feeling just from the way he play time. It's like when you're walking down the street and you feel happy and you don't even know why. Kenny Washington

Playing with Kenny Dorham was more like the essence of a dream-type thing. It was a more esoteric, ethereal feeling, and I always felt like I was floating after each set. He was very warm and lyrical. It was like playing with a jazz vocalist. Because of the way he played and the way his tone was, you had to listen a lot to him when you played. Or, more to the point, in order to enhance anything, you had to be right where he was, which would allow him to open the whole thing up, to get the flow going. You couldn't be overbearing in volume. You had to be very, very supportive. He was the type of person who would allow you to lay the foundation first and then would say, "I'll play on top of that." rather than the type of person who says, "I'll lay the foundation, and you play around a little."

Shaping the Larger Performance

If Sonny Stitt plays before me, I'll listen to the phrases he plays, and they will give me ideas for related things that I can play. I might take the last phrase that he played and comein on it. Sometimes, musicians do this as a connecting point to their own solos. Harold Ousley

You don't know what the other player is going to play, but on listening to the playback, almost every time, you hear that you related your part very quickly to what the other player played just before you. It's like a message that you relay back and forth. It happens at any tempo, whether it's very fast or whether you're playing a ballad. Or, if we're switching off every eight bars, there will be something in my eight bars that related to the last part of the soloist beforeme....You want to achieve that kind of communication when you play. When you do, your playing seems to be making sense. It's like a conversation. Tommy Flanagan

You can never know in advance of the situation what you will do at the time. Maybe the soloist will play a phrase, and you will feel like grabbing the phrase and taking it someplace else, doing something else with it. What makes creativity is playing half of this and half of that, interjecting your own thing into it. Or you might let the soloist's phrase go by completely because it would seem too obvious to play it. The unexpected is as cool as the expected, at times. Like Dizzy said, " It's not always what you play that's important. It's what you don't play." Silences can be just as important. Leroy Williams

If I'm playing very loud at a certain point in my solo - really hollering - and then I suddenly come off it and get soft, they will also back off with me. You can build and build, and then back off, and then come up again together. I like to do things like that because it's interesting for me to listen to. It's good when drummers stay under me, as opposed to over me, in terms of volume. And yet at some point, they can play right up to my level and just a little beyond to take me a little further. But if he does that and I don't take him up on it by playing any louder, then he should know enough not to push it too far. It's a give-and-take situation that way. I like a drummer to really roar in the back of me sometimes, and it gives me a lot of support; but there has to be a balance. John McNeil

Working with Art Blakey taught me about how to build a solo. Art will build it for you, so you have to go along with him. He starts off nice and soft the first chorus, an he builds the second chorus a little, and by the time you get to the third chorus, he's bashing behind you. You have to build your solo on him, so you learn how to build a solo like that. It isn't necessarily that he plays louder each chorus, but his playing becomes more intense each chorus, so you learn to build the intensity of your solo each chorus. Gary Bartz

If I would play with Horace Silver, I would learn something about drive, because Horace was so strong on the piano. If I would play with Blakey, I would also have to play something interesting, something with life in it. If you played something dull, then it was like you were in their way. Horace and Art were supposed to be playing background for you, but at the same time, they were really driving you and pushing you. And if you didn't respond, you might as well stop playing and let them go ahead without you. They didn't let you coast. You had to get onto it. Art Farmer

Sometimes, the drummer should lay out altogether and let me build my own intensity in my solo before coming back in....I will often lay out on piano for a couple of choruses when the solist is playing and let him build his own monumentum with the bass and the drums. Then I'll come in, and it just adds more intensity to the music. Walter Bishop Jr.

Surprises in Group Interaction

Sonny Rollins might play from one tune to the next without saying anything to the band, and whether the whole band played with him on that particular number depended on who knew the tune and whether not they could hang on.
Other band leaders have signals for little interludes they have in the music where different pairs of musicians might solo together, like a saxophone-drum duet. Other times, there are no signals given, and what you play is a matter of having good taste or bad taste and knowing the difference. We played a tune by such and such, and every time he played the head, there was a discrepancy about where the "one" was. he really heard the tune different ways at different times, and you'd sound like you weren't correct if you just stuck to one way. It meant that you would just have to do it what ever way he did it at the time. Don Pate

If nobody is keeping strict time, then I have to keep the time, and it alters the way I think. If someone else is keeping the time, I am much freer to play with the time, floating in and out of time. Walter Bishop Jr.

If the piano is not there, then the music is just stripped to its bare bones. What you play has got to sound good by itself. There are certain things that you might play that would only sound good with the piano player, so it is a matter of making an adjustment in your playing. Art Farmer

Charles Mingus was one of the first people in jazz I remember who was into freeing up the tempos and meters. We'd be playing at one tempo, and suddenly he'd slow it way down and change meters. We'd move from 4/4 to 3/4 to 2/4 or whatever. Other times, he'd really speed up the tempos. The changes gave a whole new feeling of freedom of expression to the music. Lonnie Hillyer

Art Blakey would sometimes take the bridge of the tune into his 3/4 waltz time thing and then with a drum roll, take it back to 4/4. Or it maight be that he'd play some stoptime pattern in there, or one of the shuffle type things he'd do on "Moanin", or the kind of thing he played on the "Blues March." He would break up the time and throw these things in different places in different tunes, just to change the flavor of the tune around. You would listen to what he was doing and go along with it. You'd have to translate on your instrument what was happening there rhythmically, dealing with the rhythm section, and at the same time, deal harmonically with what the horn players were playing. John Hicks

Mingus demanded so much of a musician that he would bring out stuff in you that you didn't even know was there. He'd really put you on the spot, and that helped you to develop your personal strength. One of his devices was to stop the entire band, including the rhythm section, and to leave you soloing out there by yourself, which I thought was beautiful. If you didn't want to look like a fool, you had to play something. One night I overslept for the gig and came in about forty-five minutes late, and Mingus decided to screw with me. They were playing a ballad when I walked in, and after a couple of choruses, before I had hardly warmed up, he pointed to me and said, "You got it." He just left me out there by myself, and had to come up with something. Actually, it went over very well, and I felt very good about it.
Mingus also had a healthy sense of competition. He would sometimes kick off songs at a breakneck tempo, so fast it would be ridiculous. One night, I was really up and playing well. He was playing something so fast that he tired out and I just kept going. Then I looked at him and said, "What'd you stop for, man?"
In order to work with a guy with such overbearing personality, you had to shape up and try to toe the line with him. Lonnie Hillyer

Richard Davis was picking apart the tunes, goofing on everything, and there was a lot of humour. Richard started changing things all around. At one point, everything was getting very shaky. The tempo was about to fall apart, and the drummer was trying to keep up with Richard, trying to figure out what he was going to do next, which way he was going to go. It got very chaotic for a minute as they were coming to the end of the chorus. It was just like an airplane coming in for a landing that was about to crash. No one knew what was going to happen or how they were going to get out of that. At that point, Jaki Byard was coming to the end of his solo, and he played this really strong rhythmic figure on top of what everone else was playing, which brought all the different tempos back together and led everyone right intoe the "one" of the next chorus. Everybody just came right back in together for the beginning of the next chorus.
In that instance, Richard deliberately introduced something rhythmically into the music that made the other players feel uneasy. People will do that sometimes. They might play something that goes against the established tempo, or they might play polyrhythmic things or start playing an odd meter against the established meter, and that makes the music feel unstable. In this case Jaki Byard knew that Richard did what he did deliberately, and he resolved it in the end by bringing it all back in. Calvin Hill

I pay you to practice on the bandstand. Miles Davis

How many times have you talked to somebody and you got ready to make a point, and it kind of went off in another direction? Maybe you never ended up making that point, but the conversation just went somewhere else and it was fine. Well, this is the way we were dealing with music. Herbie Hancock

When we would play "All the Things You Are," we would get to the point where the music was moving so intensely that the music would start to leave the song form, the actual structure of the song. We might get involved with one tonal area and would just stop the progress of the song right there and play freely in that area. That could just stretch out as completely as we would want it to go and then return to the song. This was a note-to-note kind of playing. It was an impressionistic utilization of the song. Lee Konitz

Challenges Presented by Musical Error

Last week I was playing one song and, during my solo, my mind threw me into another melody altogether. I realized what I was doing way into the song, and the piano player guided me back where I should have been. I put my ear right back to the piano because he was playing straight ahead. I realized where he was and I went right on in. Nobody in the audience knew the difference. Doc Cheatham

Sometimes, just a look, just eyes meeting, can tell you what's required of one musically. That's a very subtle way of signalling without even a spoken word. We didn't need it all the time, but just anytime we wanted it. Between Roy (Haynes) and me, a look might indicate that he wanted to pick up the tempo a little more or that he wanted to play more laid back. Don Pate

It can happen if you're playing with inexperienced people, or it can also happen to experienced people. You can be playing along and suddenly there's no bridge where there should be one, say, on a AABA tune. Musicians never seem to put two bridges in there by mistake. They usually add an extra eight bars of an A section. Or, they leave out eight bars of A. That will happen on a tune like "Just Friends," where the two halves are almost identically except for the last major chord. If the guys don't concentrate and their knowledge of the form isn't really solid, the minor differences between the halves become obscured. At that point, things can really fall apart. If the bass player is playing a pedal then, the piano player can't figure out where he should be from listening to the bass. What I try to do in that situation is to allude to the melody in my improvisation, since the melody's a little different at the end of the tune, and that will direct them back to the form. John McNeil

Everybody interprets time differently, but some bass players not only have good time, but creative time. Wilbur Ware was one of my favorite bass players because he had a different sense of time. It was not straight time. He would do unexpected things with it. He had an uncanny way of being there when you thought he wasn't. He might go off rhythmically and you'd say, "How is he going to come back from there?" Some players can stretch time to that fine line of almost turning the beat around, but they can always come back. For example, with Wilbur Ware in Monk's band, they would play so close to that thin line rhythmically that, if you weren't careful, you'd find yourself playing on one and three, instead of two and four. If you weren't careful, you'd be right off it. It has to do with where you put your accents when you're improvising. It was an amazing experience for me. like walking on a tight rope. Not everybody plays that way, but certain people like Barry harris do. That's freedom to me. That's what I like. Leroy Williams

It's one thing for a soloist to play adventurous things across the barlines when there is a rhythm section behind him, giving him a point of reference, but when a drummer solos, there is often nothing else going on behind him, an it is harder for him to hold onto the progress of the piece in his own mind and avoid errors. If his adventurousness leads him to make an error, it's difficult for the rest of us to know exactly where that error has been made and to compensate for this when the whole band comes in. Chuck Israels

We were playing "A Night in Tunisia" and we came to a four-bar break in Dizzy's solo. Dizzy was doubling up, and when we came out of the break there was an uncommon "one"....When the beat got turned around at the festival, it went on for about eight bars. In such a case, someone has to lay out. You can't fight it. Dizzy stopped first because he heard what was happening quicker than the rest of us, and he didn't know where "one" was. Then it was up to Ray Brown and Bishop and myself to clear it up. Almost immediately, we found a common "one" and the others came back in without the public realizing what had happened. Max Roach

Despite the rhythm sections efforts to keep the groove happening, it began to fall apart, Miles with his playing would center it...tie it all togehter - as though he sensed what the link was - and get the thing to grooving so hard that it was like being in the Garden of Eden. Herbie Hancock

There are chances we all have to take when we're dealing with improvisational music, and sometimes clashes occur between musicians. That's why there's so much skill and sensivity required to make the music come off well. There are also times when a clash isn't bad. It can create tension, and something new can come of it. For example, if two players make a mistake and end up in the wrong place at the wrong time, they may be able to break out of it and get into something else they might not have discovered otherwise. Max Roach

The Ongoing Interplay between Collective Improvisation and Precomposition

There are cross-rhythms and other figures that the rhythm section players can catch from each other and find ways of playing together, like the triplet figures which Philly Joe Jones, Paul Chambers and Red Garland play together on Miles Davis recordings. Things like that are worked out. Some people in the band initially play it and somebody else says, "Oh, that's good. Let's do that again." Chuck Israels

Miles would ask if we knew the tunes, and we did, so we'd play them spontaneously each night. By playing the tunes every night in a certain way, it becomes an arrangement, actually a better arrangement than if it had been written out. Philly Joe Jones

One of my original pieces just began as a tune and some changes, but evolved to a suite. The idea for the piece happened one time in Yuseef Lateef's band when Yuseef was soloing. For some reason the rest of the band just stopped, and Yuseef continued soloing. Nobody said anything about that. Everybody just felt like stopping at the same time, and nobody started playing again until he had finished his solo. Then we all came in and played the tune again. Then, when it was time for the next soloist, we all stopped and let him have it by himself. It eventually got to the point where everybody fot a chance to solo. When soloing by ourselves we would take the music to many different places.
Sometimes, if I was getting into something on my solo, the bass player would accompany me very briefly on this particular thing. Maybe it was just a mood. Then the drummer might accompany me on another part of my solo when he felt like it, and when we had exhausted that together, he'd drop out, and I'd still have it by myself. Then I'd take it somewhere else, and they would join me for that. That's the way that piece worked. It was never discussed. It evolved to the point where we had little musical cues worked out to let the band know, "I'm ending my solo now. Everybody can come back in with the tune."
What I would do to signal the end of my long improvised solo was to start playing the bridge of the tune in time, over and over. then, when they came in and joined me, we'd go back to the top and play the tune through together. Those were the only things that were the same from performance to performance. We could play the tune for a whole set. Kenny Barron

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